Such breeds are known as dual-objective (meats and you will eggs) breeds, regardless of if variations in mature looks proportions are present (Dining table step 1)

The purpose of which work is to examine the end result out-of breed and you can years into the egg production and the eggs external and you can internal top quality during the four Italian dual-goal breeds , at first and many weeks after than simply basic weeks installing interest you to definitely taken place, correspondingly, at the conclusion of june/start of trip plus cold temperatures, not as much as changeable environmental standards.

2.step one. Dogs and you may Rearing Requirements

Five Italian poultry breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and Robusta Lionata (RL), was experienced towards data. The body pounds out-of mature ladies is step 1.twenty five kilogram within the PP, 2.30 kg into the Emergency room and 3.05 kilogram inside the RM and you can RL. Their provider is the Veneto part (Italy): PP are a classic local breed; their origin try dated to the latest XIX century, however, zero specific data towards its hereditary resource can be found. Another breeds are produced in Veneto in 1950s: the Emergency room reproduce originates from Sussex (shaded eggshell breed) and you will Rhode Isle (brownish eggshell breed) breeds, while to your RM and you may RL types, Brown Orpington and you may White America, a couple brown eggshell breeds were used . As well as the adult weight, such types differ within their plumage the color: it’s wonderful in the PP, Er suggests erminate plumage, RM plumage try predominantly light that have black extremities a number of places of your looks, black colored feathers out-of primaries and you will tail and you will RL shows a beneficial tawny plumage with black colored feathers out of primaries and you will end. Most of the types (Contour S1) tell you unmarried brush and you will lay tinted eggshell egg (Profile S2).

2. Information and techniques

Birds out-of for every single reproduce hatched at the same time (last half away from elizabeth farm of your Heart getting Chicken Biodiversity Preservation on the Veneto part (it consistently provides for the latest rearing of those breeds as well are you aware that egg creation for incubation and brooding), inside Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), of hatching into the pubertal ages and you can in the laying months, and this become regarding the end from june toward start of autumn (Figure step 1), depending on the reproduce. Feeding, rearing requirements (photoperiod, temperature) and you may prophylaxis methods was a similar on the four breeds, from the time regarding hatching into the stop of one’s examined several months, which was when you look at the , on 53 weeks of age. The recently hatched chicks was in fact left inside inside basic cuatro days away from lives, within a green temperature coming down regarding thirty-two in order to 24 °C, lower than infra-yellow rays lighting fixtures, toward litter. Within 1.5 weeks old, the brand new birds received 100 % free usage of outdoor room, away from spring season so you’re able to autumn and cold weather. For every breed (60 hens) had 100 % free entry to outside (5 meters dos /bird) space (armed with linear drinkers), where the hens resided throughout the day, and also to interior (4 hens/meters dos ) space (wood shavings and straw litter, which have perches and you may rounded feeders), mainly utilized having installing egg (cumulative nests) as well as night; the bedroom (indoor and you may backyard) accessible to per reproduce is actually split by netting.

At the start of installing (at about twenty-two months old to the reproduce that have prior to onset of laying), within the September–Oct, according to reproduce, the fresh photoperiod was pure and you will coming down, according to seasons and also the geographic standing of the trial channel within the North Italy (an average of, 12L:12D), and also for the second period (away from 38 weeks old, out of December to 53 weeks old), artificial white are slowly improved (into the indoor room, filament-based light bulb, regarding the 60 lux) to obtain good photoperiod from 14L:10D. The fresh new photoperiod is actually regulated from the a timekeeper, and it are accomplished by flipping on the newest white an hour just before sunrise and you may shutting off they an hour immediately after sundown. Brand new outside ecological temperatures are 10 ± step 3.4 °C and you will eleven ± step three.0 °C, respectively, to your first (right from the start of Oct on end out-of November) plus the next (right from the start out of January into avoid off March) putting symptoms, if study to your produce efficiency and eggs high quality was basically built-up. The brand new pet got offer libitum industrial nourishes centered on its physiological phase (three varied industrial feeds for the expanding months). Towards the basic laying phase (26–33 months old, not as much as decreasing pure photoperiod), if the types been putting, the new birds were given a professional pelleted feed (PG = 16%, Me personally = 11.8 MJ/kilogram, California = 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you can maize (PG = 9.1%, Myself = thirteen.eight MJ/kg), at a proportion of 1:step 1. It’s well worth remembering one to, at this ages, precisely the twin-mission and you can tinted eggshell types displayed a variable onset of laying and you will egg creation price, whereas the fresh hens of the other breeds of brand new Maintenance Heart getting Biodiversity and hatched meanwhile of the studied breeds, for instance the light eggshell types, don’t start putting (Padovana breed) or they exhibited an incredibly light putting pastime (Polverara reproduce), never ever achieving the threshold regarding ten% hen–date egg creation. The reason behind the choice of this new Preservation Hub, to not fool around with a rss feed to have putting hens throughout this period, is actually due to perhaps not forcing the newest pullets to help you eggs development throughout the a period that have coming down temperatures and you can photoperiod. The new birds grew external, not as much as favourable requirements having skeletal wellness, travelling floor and you may less than solar power rays. From the back yard for every breed, the presence of grass open to brand new wild birds try highest during the new broadening months than simply at onset of putting, which happened adopting the summer season, if the precipitation was scarce and you may don’t accommodate an excellent turf regrowth. Of 38 to 53 months old, and around growing photoperiod, the latest hens was indeed given a commercial pelleted offer to have putting (PG = 16%, Me personally = eleven.5 MJ/kg, California = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All of the feeds consisted primarily out of maize and you may soybean.